German Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) as a model for Spain

  • Álvaro Costela Sánchez Liverpool BID Company


Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) have spread across Europe since their first introduction in the United Kingdom in 2005. Among the countries that already have BIDs, Germany, with a territorial organization similar to Spain, can serve as a reference for the prospective introduction of BIDs in Spain. This paper aims to analyse the main characteristics of the German BID model and extract practical lessons from its introduction across the different German federal states.


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Biografía del autor/a

Álvaro Costela Sánchez, Liverpool BID Company

Álvaro Costela: Marketing Manager at Liverpool BID Company, economist by University of Granada (Spain), MA in Local Economic Development and Planning by University of Valladolid (Spain), Diploma in Town Centre Management and Marketing by University of Valencia (Spain) and Diploma in Professional Marketing by CIM (Chartered Institute of Marketing) (UK). 

Cómo citar
Costela Sánchez, Álvaro. (2018). German Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) as a model for Spain. GIGAPP Estudios Working Papers, 5(79-82), 33-48. Recuperado a partir de